Q1. What laws control firearms in Canada?

 A1. At the federal level, firearms are regulated primarily by the Firearms Act and by Part III of the Criminal Code. The Firearms Act and its supporting regulations set out the rules for possessing a firearm. The Criminal Code and its supporting regulations identify the various firearms, weapons and devices regulated by the Firearms Act.Both the Criminal Code and the Firearms Act contain offences and penalties for illegal possession or misuse of a firearm. For example, a person who has failed to register a restricted or prohibited firearm or who has used a firearm to commit a crime could be charged under the Criminal Code.Provinces, territories or municipalities may have additional laws and regulations that apply in their jurisdiction. For example, provinces are responsible for regulating hunting. They may put restrictions on where hunting can take place and on the caliber or gauge of firearms that may be used for hunting particular game. 

Q2. What are the different classes of firearms in Canada?

A2. There are three classes of firearms: non-restricted, restricted and prohibited.Non-restricted firearms are ordinary rifles and shotguns, other than those referred to below.Restricted firearms include:

  • handguns that are not prohibited;
  • semi-automatic, centre-fire rifles and shotguns with a barrel shorter than 470 mm;
  • rifles and shotguns that can be fired when their overall length has been reduced by folding, telescoping or other means to less than 660 mm; and
  • firearms restricted by Criminal Code Regulations.

Prohibited firearms include:

  • handguns with a barrel length of 105 mm or less and handguns that discharge .25 or .32 calibre ammunition, except for a few specific ones used in International Shooting Union competitions;
  • rifles and shotguns that have been altered by sawing or other means so that their barrel length is less than 457 mm or their overall length is less than 660 mm;
  • full automatics;
  • converted automatics, namely full automatics that have been altered so that they fire only one projectile when the trigger is squeezed; and
  • firearms prohibited by Criminal Code Regulations.

Q3. What is the maximum number of cartridges that a firearm magazine can legally hold?  

A3. As set out in Criminal Code Regulations, some large-capacity magazines are prohibited regardless of the class of firearm to which the magazines are attached. As a general rule, the maximum magazine capacity is:

  • 5 cartridges for most magazines designed for a semi-automatic centre-fire long gun; or
  • 10 cartridges for most handgun magazines

A large-capacity magazine is not prohibited if it has been permanently altered so that it cannot hold more than the number of cartridges allowed by law. Acceptable ways to alter a magazine are set out in the regulations.There is no limit to the magazine capacity for semi-automatic rim-fire long guns, or for other long guns that are not semi-automatics, with some exceptions. See also Special Bulletin for Businesses No. 72, Maximum Permitted Magazine Capacity. 

Q4.Who can get a firearm license in Canada?


For Canadian Residents 18 and Older: 

  • The Possession and Acquisition Licence (PAL) is the only licence currently available to new applicants. It is renewable every five years. As a general rule, applicants must have passed the Canadian Firearms Safety Course.
  • Firearms Acquisition Certificates (FAC) issued under the former law were considered to be licences. They have all expired and need to be replaced with a PAL.

For Non-Residents aged 18 and older

  • A Non-resident firearms declaration that has been confirmed by a customs officer is deemed to be a temporary licence for up to 60 days.
  • Non-residents who have passed the Canadian Firearms Safety Course can apply for a five-year PAL.

For Individuals aged 12 to 17

  • A Minors' Licence will enable young people to borrow a non-restricted rifle or shotgun for approved purposes such as hunting or target shooting. Generally, the minimum age is 12 years, but exceptions may be made for younger people who need to hunt to sustain themselves and their families. Applicants must have taken the Canadian Firearms Safety Course and passed the test.
  • Once a person turns 18, they are no longer eligible for a minor's licence. Instead, they must apply for a Possession and Acquisition Licence (PAL) and pay the applicable fee.

Q5.How to get a firearms license in Canada?

A5.You can apply for a Possession and Acquisition License. In order to do so, you must first successfully complete the Canadian Firearms Safety Course and if wishing to possess restricted firearms they must also show successful completion of the Canadian Restricted Firearms Safety Course. The issued PAL will indicate the classes of firearms the holder is able to possess and acquire in writing on the back. The Canadian Firearms Safety Course (CFSC) and Canadian Restricted Firearms Safety Course (CRFSC) can be completed in your local area. Upon successful completion of the CFSC/CRFSC the applicant must complete an application including a passport style photo and processing fee and submit to a criminal record check, background check and reference check.There is a mandatory 28 day waiting period that takes effect from when the Canadian Firearms Program receives and applicants request to the time of issuance.   The fee for a PAL is $60 for non-restricted, $80 for restricted or prohibited (grandfathered or inherited prohibited firearms). If an applicant is wishing to have multiple endorsements on their license, the maximum fee is $80.   



IPSC - 国际实用射击联盟。竞技性较强的手枪动态射击。多数选手用改良过或优化的手枪比赛。以速度, 精度和火力的平衡计算分数。

IDPA - 国际防御性手枪协会。以模拟手枪隐蔽携枪和防卫场景的动态射击。一般不允许用纯竞赛设备。以时间加扣分为成绩。

CDP - 加拿大版的IDPA, 最初针对IDPA缺乏系统化培训而设立, 并针对加拿大状况作出修改。

PPC - 警察手枪战斗训练。相对比较少位置移动的手枪动态射击。以变换不同姿势和利用掩护物进行射击。是限时精准射击, 以规定时间内打出总环数作为成绩。

CQB - 近战训练。模拟特种部队清屋情景, 一般以步枪和手枪射击, 结合团队配合。加拿大很少有完整的CQB体验, 只有模拟部分动作或者场景的射击活动。

2/3/多 枪 - 近年新兴的多种类枪械混合射击。通常是手枪, 战术步枪, 散弹枪的不同组合, 有时也会加入其它元素增加趣味, 例如飞刀, 射箭等。

PRS - 精准步枪系列。用精准狙击步枪, 以非常规姿势(模拟战地姿态), 利用环境物件, 远距离射击各种铁靶, 从几百到一千多码距离不等。是限时精准射击, 按规定时间内, 击中铁靶分数为成绩。

TDSA - 源于美国德州的防卫性射击。对比其他竞赛型打法,TDSA更接近于·实战打法。TDSA Canada用同样训练方法训练本地特警,打法可以简单总结为"绝对快相对准",初级课强调速度,高级课强调战术和配合。